1. Perovskite-based oxyhydrides as nitrogen fixation catalysts
Production of ammonia (NH3) continues to increase to satisfy ever-growing global demand. Most industrial production processes are still based on the 100-year-old Haber-Bosch process which requires temperatures of >400 °C and 150-200 atm of pressure to overcome slow dissociation of N2. These harsh reaction conditions have led to NH3 production accounting for 2% of global energy consumption and 1% of global greenhouse gas production. New catalysts that can lower energy requirement and carbon footprint of this process are of interest. Recently, a new class of perovskite-based oxyhydrides (AMO3-xHx; A2MO4-xHx) have been discovered and it has been demonstrated that N3–/H– substitution can be achieved in these compounds by heating under N2 flow. This ability to break the N2 triple bond at ambient pressures makes perovskite oxyhydrides candidates for NH3 production catalysts.